History of Mosaic Art
The history of mosaic goes back some 4,000 years or more, with the use of terracotta cones pushed point-first into a background to give decoration. By the eighth century BC, there were pebble pavements, using different coloured stones to create patterns, although these tended to be unstructured decoration. It was the Greeks, in the four centuries BC, who raised the pebble technique to an art form, with precise geometric mosaic tile patterns and detailed scenes of people and animals.
A full vision of the history of mosaics requires an understanding of all of the civilizations where the mosaic tile was present because this mosaic art form was not born in a particular place or time. Rather, it appeared sporadically in various cultures and locations not connected with each other, until finally this mosaic art form became more prominent and was subsequently developed and disseminated. In fact some of the first manifestations were: In Chaldean architecture, some two thousand years B.C., where some columns were covered with mosaic tile, small cones of clay art were actually embedded in the structure of the column, and painted. In the ancient pre-dynasty tomb of UR, a city of Sumeria where two panels of a standard is in part decorated with mosaic tile, picturing scenes of victory, wars and peace.
In ancient Egypt, there existed many decorations in glass mosaic paste in palaces and temples. The Egyptians were the first to discover the fusion of glass mosaic tile, and to create a flourishing industry which even led to the decoration of their ships. From this fact, one can conclude that it is likely that the usage of glass mosaic tile reached Italy from Egypt, for example the scenes of the Nile in the museum of Alexandria, of Tell Timai, Delta. In Alexandria, one can find many ancient mosaic tile decorations. In fact, two schools are discernible, that of the east extending towards Asia, in Syria and Byzantium, and the other towards Greece and Italy. The early spread of mosaic tile in Greece is well known. Among the most famous mosaic tile locations was Pergamo, the capital of Misia, where the first school of mosaic tile was born under the master artist Sosos. Mosaic tile became so popular that they were used in the decoration of even the most modest homes. These mosaic tiles are still visible on the magnificent works of art found in various archaeological sites. They were produced in "ciottoli" (pebbles) which were combined in such a manner as to obtain contrasting colors and gradation of shading so as to give volume to the mosaic tile figures.
By 200 BC, specially manufactured pieces "mosaic tile" were being used to give extra detail and range of colour to the work. Using small mosaic tile, sometimes only a few millimeters in size, meant that mosaic tile could imitate paintings. Many of the mosaic tile preserved art, for example, Pompeii were the work of Greek artists. Glass was not suitable for floor mosaic tile, the tesserae were mainly small cubes of marble or other stone. Sometimes bits of ceramic pottery, such as terracotta, or brick were used to provide a range of colours.
Whereas Roman mosaic tile were mostly used as floors, the Byzantines specialized in covering walls and ceilings with mosaic tile. The smalti were ungrouted, allowing light to reflect and refract within the glass. Also, the mosaic tiles were set at slight angles to the wall, so that they caught the light in different ways.
History of Clay Pottery
Clay pottery is made from clay, one of the most common substances on earth. The result of weathering on granite or limestone or the decomposition of feldspar, clay is primarily formed of the mineral kaolinite and is a combination of aluminum oxide, silicon oxide and water.
Accessible by riverbanks or dug up close to the earth’s surface, clay was one of the human race’s earliest resources. Easily worked by hand or with the most basic of tools, clay forms could be quickly moulded and dried in the sun. These early figurines and pots weren’t very durable until prehistoric people tamed fire and discovered how to fire clay.
Some archaeologists conjecture that the discovery came about by accident, when clay bowls or jar of clay mud-lined baskets were placed too close to the cooking fire and were baked as a result. Others postulate that religious figures made of jar of clay discarded or sacrificed in the fire, and found hardened in the ashes, could have tipped off early peoples. Still others think that early humans could have discovered that fire pits dug in clay were more efficient than those dug directly out of sand or soil due to the clay being baked, and transferred the technology to creating jar of clay and clay pottery barn.
It is believed that the earliest clay pottery barn and jar of clay were hand-built and fired in bonfires. Firing times were short but the peak-temperatures achieved in the fire could be high, perhaps in the region of 900 degrees Celsius, and were reached very quickly. Clay tempered with sand, grit, crushed shell or crushed clay pottery barn were often used to make bonfire-fired ceramic pottery barn, because they provided an open body texture that allows water and other volatile components of the clay to escape freely. The coarser particles in the clay also acted to restrain shrinkage within the body jar of clay during cooling. Early bonfire-fired jar of clay were made with rounded bottoms, to avoid sharp angles that might be susceptible to cracking.
For archaeologists and historians the study of clay pottery can help to provide an insight into past cultures. Clay pottery is durable and fragments often survive long after clay pot made from less-durable materials has decayed past recognition. Combined with other evidence, the study of clay pottery barn artifacts is helpful in the development of theories on the organization, economic condition and the cultural development of the societies that produced or acquired clay pottery barn. The study of jar of clay may also allow inferences to be drawn about a culture's daily life, religion, social relationships, and attitudes towards neighbours.
History of Nabatean Clay Pottery
Nabateans of Petra (from πέτρα "petra", rock in Greek) were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, their loosely-controlled trading network, which centred on strings of oases that they controlled around Petra the rose city.
Nabateans common-ware clay pottery was simple and similar to the clay pottery used by the civilizations around them. Its distinctive characteristic was the use of red clay that gave it a bright red color. Most Nabataean common-ware clay pottery was well made but plain, with little decoration. This, however, was not true of their fine, thin-wares. Nabataean fine thin-ware clay pottery was all made locally, and some was plain, but the majority was painted. Nabataean fine thin-ware was perhaps the finest ceramics produced in the Middle East up to that time. It has been suggested by some that their taste in fine clay pottery came from pieces they might have imported from China.
The Nabataeans were nomads, they had little use for clay pottery and used water skins and wooden bowls. Consequently, Nabataean clay pottery does not generally exist from before 100 BC. Then, suddenly they began to produce their own clay pottery, both common-ware clay pottery for every day use and very fine thin clay pottery for the wealthy and for religious usage. This clay pottery, especially the later kind, was produced in huge quantities, and large mounds of broken Nabataean clay pottery lie in Petra today.
Their painted clay pottery was unique, with figures of ancient mythology, flowering vines, flowers, and even birds with bright plumage. Some of the finest and thinnest of Nabataean painted clay pottery was found underneath the paved floor of the central altar-shrine of Khirbet Tannur, and is dated no later than the end of the first century BC. Recently archaeologists have discovered near complete clay pottery trays, bowls, and other objects in an unrobed tomb in Jordan.
History of Ceramic Art
Ceramic pootery and ceramic art in the art world means artwork made out of clay bodies and fired into the hardened ceramic form. Some ceramic pieces are classified as fine art, while many others can be classified as one of the decorative, industrial or applied arts. Ceramic pottery usually was intended by the maker as art. It may have a signature, designer name or brand name stamp on the bottom. Ceramic pottery can be either manufactured by individuals or in a factory that employs artists to design, produce or decorate the ware.
Historically, ceramic pottery articles were prepared by shaping the jar of clay body, a clay rich mixture of various minerals, into the desired shapes before being subjected to high temperatures in a kiln. However ceramic pottery now refers to a very diverse group of materials which, while all are fired to high temperature, may not have been shaped from material containing any clay.
On the Greek island of Santorini are some of the earliest finds dating to the third millennium BC, with the original settlement at Akrotiri dating to the fourth millennium BC some of the excavated homes contain huge ceramic pottery storage jars known as pithoi. A number of Gravettian figurines found in the Czech Republic are believed to represent the earliest known works of ceramic pottery artwork made of the human form.
Fine art ceramic pottery include ceramic art made by hand and designed to be purely art, that is to be looked at and enjoyed visually and contemplatively, without any further uses. It is often one of a kind. In modern art theory, the fine ceramic pottery or expressive jar of clay has been used as a name of pottery barn that aspires to the conditions of fine ceramic pottery art, generally by prioritizing conceptual and aesthetic qualities over functionality or usefulness. Fine art ceramic pottery has been used as a term opposite of the phrase ethical pot (meaning utilitarian pottery) - at least by ceramic pottery art theorists defining art styles and their merits since the 1940s. The modern art movement in ceramic pottery is experimental in nature. Many styles originated from the Arts and Crafts movement when studio potters were looking to find a place and definition for the crafts in the age of industrialization and mechanized-production, and from the desire to re-establish ceramic pottery as a fine art medium. Modern ceramic pottery artists and potters often engage in what has become know as the "Art versus Craft debate", in which the merits of each ceramic pottery approach are perpetually reiterated without resolution.
Mosaic Art Workshops
Mufida Art Mosaic workshop provides an environment that will motivate you to start on your next or even first mosaic tile project. The aim is to obtain mosaic tile techniques intended for both indoor and outdoor decoration (mirrors, table tops, vases, wall ornaments, name plates and many more). The primary material in the workshop is ceramics, which is inexpensive and easy to find. You will learn to handle ceramics cutters in order to create your own mosaic tile pieces. You will learn how to plan and elaborate a project from idea up to realization.
The Mosaic Tile Workshop undertakes a wide range of mosaics, including domestic, commercial, religious, public art, mosaic tile for schools and the community, mosaic tile objects, pools, and portraits. The company offers a unique range of skills encompassing the design, restoration, manufacture and installation of mosaic tile made of glass, marble and ceramic.
Have fun being creative while learning traditional mosaic tile techniques in an informal workshop setting. You will plan and build your own project: from designing patterns to choosing color combinations and cutting ceramic. Do you want to make a mirror, a decorative hook or a magnet board? Kids love making mosaic tile works. They will play with colors and patterns and will make something decorative for their room. In the after school mosaic tile workshops for children three years and older kids work to their own level on projects appropriate for their age.
Mosaic Tile and Ceramic Classes
For those really serious about mosaic tile and ceramics Mufida Art Mosaic holds a number of regular weekly classes. These sessions provide the opportunity to work at your own pace with helpful guidance near at hand in a social environment. There is the opportunity to learn a wide range of techniques. These classes are tailored to teach you both the Indirect and Direct methods of mosaic tile.
During the beginners course you will learn the techniques of how to cut the mosaic tile to make your own Mosaic pattern. You will learn to understand the importance of the grout and the colour combinations to compliment the finished Mosaic tile. Your first piece is designed as a practice piece to help you learn the cutting techniques and the Indirect/Reverse Mosaic tile method. The second Mosaic tile is of your own choice, you can make a mirror, pottery barn, picture or even a table top. All the classes cost $90 this includes use of all tools, adhesive and grout for two mosaic tiles. The material allowance includes all the mosaic tiles for the first mosaic pattern and for the second piece is a square foot of mosaic tiles.
Design the Mosaic
First the mosaic tile portrait would be drawn out roughly and many different combinations of content, style and design considered. This was often a long process as it was such an expensive and important part of the house. Once the design had been finalised, the artist would make a full scale colour drawing of the mosaic tile and it would be passed to the chosen craftsman to make the design into the finished mosaic pattern or mosaic portrait.
Build the Mosaic Tiles
The craftsman would take the plans back to his workshop and begin producing the individual pieces (mosaic tile) that would make the finished mosaic product. Behind the workshop, would be piles of broken pottery barn and stone based materials that would make the variety of colours in the mosaic pattern.
Pieces of discarded and broken pottery barn. Clay artifacts that had burst whilst being fired in the furnace due to air pockets in the material. These were used to make the various shades of colour that would be used in the mosaic tile. If the mosaic tile was geometric in that it consisted of mosaic patterns that were repeated throughout the design, panels were made and transported to the site and the mosaic tile built in sections. However, for the more intricate parts, the craftsman and his team would lay each mosaic tile by hand in its allotted place.
The first stage in actually building the mosaic tile was to prepare the surface. Mosaic tiles were meant to last for many years, and also resist the possibility of subsidence ruining the finished product.
The first task was to dig a hole the size of the finished mosaic pattern and lay a base of rubble, ensuring it was compacted down and made level. This layer would then be covered in cement to a depth just below the level of the floor. Just before this hardened, the design would be drawn out using a sharp tool or painted on the surface if the cement had hardened faster than had been expected. The apprentices would lay any prefabricated panels then allowed to work on any single mosaic pattern that made up the border. The mosaic pattern that covered an area of (5X3)m contained about 120,000 pieces.
Artwork Online Store
Online shopping is the process consumers go through to purchase mosaic art itmes, clay pottery barn or ceramic pottery products over the Internet. An online shop, e-shop, e-store, Internet shop, webshop, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying ceramic pottery, clay pottery barn, or mosaic art products at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or in a shopping mall.
The mosaic art or clay pottery barn or ceramic pottery artwork online shopping is a type of electronic commerce used for business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions.